MIT Alumni — Journey to engineer the weather
MIT — How to Halt a Hurricane
Download the .pdf mirrored here:
It’s the loudest sound you’ll come across 0n the short wave now. 8.545 megahertz is one. 8.570 …this is before 12:00 noon. 12.815 and 12.850, 17.110, 18.370 MHz. Then in the afternoon and sometimes after 6:00 PM you will hear it on 17.110 and other frequencies as well. So we’re getting really blasted with this thing
Dr. Moshe Alamaro (worked with Dr. Eastlund in weather modification / engineering) As a graduate student and later as a Research Scientist at the MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS) Moshe Alamaro helped to design, build and manage the MIT Air-Sea Interaction Lab where he supervised six students.
Alamaro, M.; “My Journey to Engineer the Weather”, MIT Alumni News and Views, What Matters: June 2009.
North Dakota cloud seeding / weather modification project (2012) :
Wisconsin Weather Modification Rules (2012):
Desert Research Institute Cloud Seeding Program (2012) :
Texas cloud seeding operations:
Idaho Power cloud seeding program (2012) :
Colorado cloud seeding program (2012) :
Colorado Department of Natural Resources Weather Modification Rules / Regulations :
Embry-Riddle University information on Cloud Seeding :
American Socity of Civil Engineers “How to” on hail suppression :
More .pdfs and information on weather modification via frequency and aerosols:
Airplanes around airports CA– USE snow and rain NEARBY
“Airplanes flying through super-cooled clouds around airports can cause condensation that results in more snow and rain nearby, according to a new study.
Here is a very long list of links, diagrams, photos, and .pdf files from institutions like Stanford, Leicester University, Cornell, Harvard, etc.. also from several military and .gov sites
Some links work, others are “down” but still included to prove they DID exist. These things have a way of disappearing off the net, so download them and MIRROR them on other file sharing sites if you can.
Ionospheric Heating using frequency – Earth Penetrating Tomography using ground based stations:
US Navy electronic warfare :
Outlawing the use of VLF to HF weapons / tectonic weapons / weather modification weapons :
Download the .pdf directly from my site here:
Senate Bill S.601 – weather ‘mitigation’ bill – Sponsored by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Rockefeller
Download the .pdf directly from my site here:
Other locations similar to the IRI antennas in Alaska :
Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
The EISCAT Associates
Their Facility –
EISCAT Headquarters are located at Kiruna in Sweden
The EISCAT Scientific Association,
PO Box 812,
S-981 28 KIRUNA
The 49.92 MHz incoherent scatter radar is the principal facility of the Observatory. The radar antenna consists of a large square array of 18,432 half-wave dipoles arranged into 64 separate modules of 12 x 12 crossed half-wave dipoles. Each linear polarization of each module can be separately phased (by hand, changing cable lengths), and the modules can be fed separately or connected in almost any desired fashion. There is great flexibility, but changes cannot be made rapidly. The individual modules have a beam width of about 7°, and the array can be steered within this region by proper phasing. The one way half power beam width of the full array is about 1.1°; the two way (radar) half power beam width is about 0.8°. The frequency bandwidth is about 1 MHz. The isolation between the linear polarizations is very good, at least 50 dB, which is important for certain measurements. Since the array is on the ground and the Observatory is the only sign of man in a desert region completely surrounded by mountains, there is no RF interference.
The original transmitter consisted of four completely independent modules which could be operated together or separately. Two of those modules have been converted to a new design using modern tubes and each of these new modules can deliver a peak power of ~1.5 MW, with a maximum duty cycle of 6%, and pulses as short as 0.8-1.0 s. Pulses as long as 2 ms show little power droop; considerably longer pulses are probably possible. The other two modules are currently unavailable until their conversion is complete. The third is actually more than 95% complete; the fourth is well advanced. The drivers of the main transmitter can also be used as transmitters for applications requiring only 50-100 KW of peak power.
An additional antenna module with 12 x 12 crossed dipoles was built in 1996. It is located 204 m to the west of the west corner of the main antenna and increases the lengths of the available interferometer base line to 564 m.
There are 3 additional 50 MHz “mattress” array antennas steerable to +/-70° zenith angles in the E-W direction only. Each consists of 4 x 2 half-wave dipoles mounted a quarter wavelength above a ground screen. Two of these arrays can handle high powers. There is also a single fat dipole mounted a quarter wavelength above ground that can handle at least a megawatt. There is a lot of land around the Observatory for additional antennas for special experiments. Arrays of a kilometer or more in length could be set up (in certain directions).
There are four phase-coherent (common oscillators) receivers for the radars. These mix the signal to baseband (with two quadrature outputs each), with maximum output bandwidths of about 1 MHz. Filters are available with nominal impulse response time constants ranging from 1 to 500 s. As many as eight data channels (four complex pairs) can be sampled simultaneously with 125 m (0.83 s) resolution and fed to a large FIFO buffer/coherent integrator, and from there to one of the computers. We are in the process of designing new receivers; we plan to have at least eight, with more precise digital filtering at the output.
The computing hardware at JRO is constantly evolving. For many years the main data-taking computer has been a Harris H800 with various tape drives, including two Exabyte 2.2 GByte 8 mm cassette tape drives (maximum writing speed of 256 KBytes/s). But now there is also a Harris Nighthawk computer (UNIX operating system) with an 80-MFLOPS array processor and various workstations and PCs, all networked together. Data acquisition can be hosted by any one of a number of these machines with real-time processing and display capabilities.
The JULIA radar shares the main antenna of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. JULIA (which stands for Jicamarca Unattended Long-term investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere) has an independent PC-based data acquisition system and makes use of some of the exciter stages of the Jicamarca radar along with the main antenna array. Since this system does not use the main high-power transmitters (which are expensive and labor intensive to operate and maintain), it can run unsupervised for long periods of time. With a pair of 30-kW peak power pulsed transmitters driving a 290 m by 290 m modular antenna array, JULIA is a formidable MST/coherent scatter radar. It is uniquely suited for studying the day-to-day and long-term variability of equatorial plasma irregularities and neutral atmospheric waves, which until now have only been investigated episodicly or in campaign mode.
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
Millstone Hill, USA
Pic of Haystack facility and more info:
Sondre stromfjord, Greenland
(search for scatter)
The Institute possesses a complex of unique astrophysical equipment deployed in the Sayan Mountains, especially the Siberian solar radiotelescope, a large solar vacuum telescope, an incoherent scatter radar, as well as a network of astrophysical laboratories throughout the territory of Siberia.
USA (Besides HAARP)
HIPAS — High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
Located near Fairbanks Alaska
Fairbanks, Alaska has been the host for UCLA’s use of HIPAS Observatory for the study of the aurora borealis and is now shut down.
FAIRBANKS — After spending a quarter-century accumulating astronomical equipment in Two Rivers, of all places, the UCLA physics department plans to spend this year doing a little housecleaning.The Los Angeles-based university has shut down the HIPAS Observatory, a remote site it maintained at 26 Mile Chena Hot Springs Road that was used for atmospheric research.
When HIPAS was a functioning observatory, it boasted an inventory of exotic-sounding equipment that UCLA said made it “one of the best locations for the observation of the aurora borealis.”A one-megawatt transmitter could produce extremely low-frequency electromagnetic waves, and a 2.7-meter liquid mirror telescope was on site with a half-dozen lasers for “ionospheric stimulation and measurement.”
A plasma torch was used for research on the destruction of hazardous waste, along with an incoherent scatter radar for studying the ionosphere. A pair of diesel generators provided power for experiments.UCLA Senior Counsel Glenn Fitchman said the university is in the process of selling its inventory at Two Rivers, although he didn’t have details about what specific equipment remains at HIPAS and what is being sold.“This is a very slow process of taking down the site,” Fitchman said. “A lot of stuff has accumulated over time.”
The HIPAS Observatory was mothballed when its director moved into semi-retirement last year, Fitchman said, and no researchers have been stationed there for a year or longer. UCLA has leased the site from the University of Alaska since 1986.HIPAS — the acronym stands for High Power Auroral Stimulation — was used for experimental research on the aurora borealis, energy conduction in the ionosphere and high-power radio transmissions. The observatory had four permanent staff members, according to UCLA officials.
Fitchman said retired UCLA professor Alfred Wong, the former director of HIPAS, has stepped down and funding for his research has dried up. He said that the University of California isn’t interested in pursuing Wong’s research, so HIPAS is being closed.HIPAS occasionally made news as the site of unusual ionospheric research. Part of its research included directing electrical energy into the ionosphere, allowing the observatory to study its effect on the aurora.In 2006, Wong told the American Geophysical Union that he planned an experiment at HIPAS to direct carbon dioxide into outer space, which could be a possible aid in curbing global warming.
Wong wanted to try to carry negatively charged carbon-dioxide particles out of the atmosphere, using the earth’s magnetic field as a conveyor.Wong didn’t return messages to comment on his research or the closure.The UCLA Physics Department Web site describes the HIPAS Observatory as a 120-acre site with six buildings, including a bunkhouse for visiting researchers.
The UAF lease terms describe it as a 130-acre site.The HIPAS Observatory had a similar research role as the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program, or HAARP, which is located near Gakona. The two Alaska facilities, along with the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, were the only ionospheric research sites operated by the U.S. government, according to the HAARP Web site.UCLA was paying $10,000 per year to UA for the HIPAS lease, which has come to an end. UA spokeswoman Kate Ripley said there are no immediate plans for the facility.
ULCAR stations :
Stanford VLF AWESOME network:
CERN and HAARP –
CERN / HAARP .pdf download mirror here:
Books and older publications covering weather modification:
Geometric Modulation (shaping a signal to increase power) :
Lower ionosphere heating / geometric modulation / circle sweeps, sawtooth sweeps, square wave, rectangle wave:
download the .pdf mirrored on my site here:
These shots below come from a Navy .mil website .. clearly showing a “HAARP ring / Circle sweep” pattern and circumference similar to that which we are seeing on RADAR — only MUCH more powerful — covering the entire state of Alaska.. done using electromagnetic modulation from a ground based station.. VLF and UHF.
“By modulating the ambient current flowing in the ionosphere, e.g., the auroral electrojet, it is possible to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) radiation. This ionospheric modification technique can provide such waves for probing both the Earth and the ionosphere- magnetosphere. The modification occurs in the lower D-region and can provide information about the ambient conditions in one of the least diagnosed regions of the ionosphere.
The electrojet is modulated by using a high frequency heater (a few MHZ) with the power modulated at the desired ELF/VLF frequency to heat the ionospheric electrons in the lower D-region. Figure 1a shows a sketch of the heater and heated region. The heated region is typically at 75 km (though this depends upon the carrier frequency) and can be 30 km in diameter and a few km thick. Viewed from above (see Figure 1b) the heated region is a roughly circular patch. The smoothness of the heated region depends upon the antenna radiation pattern as well as D-region conditions. The heating increases the electron-neutral collision rate which changes the conductivities. Since on ELF time scales the ambient electric field is constant, modulating the conductivity produces a current modulated at the same frequency. At these altitudes the conductivity change is predominantly in the Hall conductivity. If the ambient electric field, E, is in ±y direction, a time varying current perturbation is generated, j, in the ±x direction (Fig. 1b). The time varying current launches waves both up and down the Earth’s magnetic field. In the simulations shown here, we start with a time-varying current and study the downward propagating waves and how they couple into the Earth-ionospheric wave guide.
The animations show 5 different representations of the same simulation. The simulation uses a time-varying current perturbation (1 kHz) in the D-region at 75 km. The current is in the magnetic east-west direction. The Earth’s magnetic field is vertical. The simulation box is 1800 by 1800 by 120 km. Isosurfaces are shown for the absolute value of the horizontal magnetic field ABSB and of the vertical electric field ABSEZ. Also shown is the east-west magnetic field in the near-field BX1 and in the far-field BX2. Since the field amplitude falls off with distance, BX1 uses a order-of-magnitude larger isosurface value than BX2 to emphasize the field close to the site. The north- south magnetic field is shown in BY1 and BY2. These plots look slightly different from the absolute value plots where both the positive and negative surfaces were shown. Also BX and BY do have a different orientation of the their radiation patterns. The direction of the radiation is determined by the total horizontal field shown in ABSB and by the vertical electric field shown in ABSEZ. The radiation pattern in the earth-ionosphere waveguide is a combination of a linear dipole antenna and a right-hand circular antenna. At ELF frequencies because of low D-region absorption the dipole is dominant. The dipole radiates in the magnetic east-west direction.
Because 1 kHz is below cutoff the mode in the waveguide is a TEM mode. The mode consists of a horizontal B field perpendicular to the direction of propagation and a vertical electric field. With perfect conductors, the mode is uniform in the vertical direction. As the wave propagates in the waveguide, the top of the wave is approximately at the bottom of the ionosphere. Above the heated region, waves are also launched along the Earth’s magnetic field. In the near-field ( BX1 and BY1) one can see the pulse being radiated downward. It strikes the ground and reflects back up to the ionosphere. Part of the energy propagates up the field lines into the ionosphere. This is the bubble seen rising up. The D-region is highly collisional and damps this wave. Looking at BX2 and BY2 one can see that the energy mainly stays in the waveguide. If one looks closely at the top of the wave in the waveguide the wave appears to be curved. The waveguide mode is coupling into the bottom of the D-region and driving a whistler mode up the field lines. The whistlers have a much lower velocity than the waveguide mode and can only propagate along the field lines. This acts to curve the top of the waves. These waves help form the bubble that propagates up the field line. Because of this, the diameter of the bubble is much larger than the heated region.
Above the heated region in ABSEZ one can see a pair of coils revolving around each other. These are the currents that flow up and down the Earth’s magnetic field forming the current loops associated with the waves propagating up the field lines. Finally, EZ1 is a blow-up of the high-altitude portion of the vertical electric field for positive values of the electric field; the current loop is more clearly seen.”